Nand Kishor is the Product Manager of House of Bots. After finishing his studies in computer science, he ideated & re-launched Real Estate Business Intelligence Tool, where he created one of the leading Business Intelligence Tool for property price analysis in 2012. He also writes, research and sharing knowledge about Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Data Science, Big Data, Python Language etc... ...Full Bio
Nand Kishor is the Product Manager of House of Bots. After finishing his studies in computer science, he ideated & re-launched Real Estate Business Intelligence Tool, where he created one of the leading Business Intelligence Tool for property price analysis in 2012. He also writes, research and sharing knowledge about Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Data Science, Big Data, Python Language etc...
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"In an era of rapid innovation, Scientific American founded the first branch of the U.S. Patent Agency, in 1850, to provide technical help and legal advice to inventors. A Washington, D.C., branch was added in 1859. By 1900 more than 100,000 inventions had been patented thanks to Scientific American.
"An attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language, form abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves. ... For the present purpose the artificial intelligence problem is taken to be that of making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving".
We think that a significant advance can be made in one or more of these problems if a carefully selected group of scientists work on it together for a summer.
Dating the beginning of any movement is difficult, but the Dartmouth Summer Research Project of 1956 is often taken as the event that initiated AI as a research discipline. John McCarthy, a mathematics professor at Dartmouth at the time, had been disappointed that the papers in Automata Studies, which he co-edited with Claude Shannon, did not say more about the possibilities of computers possessing intelligence. Thus, in the proposal written by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Claude Shannon, and Nathaniel Rochester for the 1956 event, McCarthy wanted, as he explained at AI@50, "to nail the flag to the mast." McCarthy is credited for coining the phrase "artificial intelligence" and solidifying the orientation of the field. It is interesting to speculate whether the field would have been any different had it been called "computational intelligence" or any of a number of other possible labels.
Five of the attendees from the original project attended AI@50. Each gave some recollections. McCarthy acknowledged that the 1956 project did not live up to expectations in terms of collaboration. The attendees did not come at the same time and most kept to their own research agenda. McCarthy emphasized that nevertheless there were important research developments at the time, particularly Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon's Information Processing Language (IPL) and the Logic Theory Machine. Marvin Minsky commented that, although he had been working on neural nets for his dissertation a few years prior to the 1956 project, he discontinued this earlier work because he became convinced that advances could be made with other approaches using computers. Minsky expressed the concern that too many in AI today try to do what is popular and publish only successes. He argued that AI can never be a science until it publishes what fails as well as what succeeds. Oliver Selfridge highlighted the importance of many related areas of research before and after the 1956 summer project that helped to propel AI as a field. The development of improved languages and machines was essential. He offered tribute to many early pioneering activities such as J. C. R. Licklider developing time-sharing, Nat Rochester designing IBM computers, and Frank Rosenblatt working with perceptrons. Trenchard More was sent to the summer project for two separate weeks by the University of Rochester. Some of the best notes describing the AI project were taken by More, although ironically he admitted that he never liked the use of "artificial" or "intelligence" as terms for the field. Ray Solomonoff said he went to the summer project hoping to convince everyone of the importance of machine learning. He came away knowing a lot about Turing machines that informed future work.
Thus, in some respects the 1956 summer research project fell short of expectations. The participants came at various times and worked on their own projects, and hence it was not really a conference in the usual sense. There was no agreement on a general theory of the field and in particular on a general theory of learning. The field of AI was launched not by agreement on methodology or choice of problems or general theory, but by the shared vision that computers can be made to perform intelligent tasks. This vision was stated boldly in the proposal for the 1956 conference: "The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it."
New technology, in fact, came along after [italics mine] the renaissance of the newspaper. The New York Sun was the first "penny paper," featuring sensational stories aimed at mass audience... it stretched the limit of its hand presses with its 10,000 copies a day. (When a series of stories announcing the discovery of life on the moon appeared, it sold 20,000 copies in a day; by then it had switched to a steam-powered press). Benjamin Day, its published, bragged about its power: "Since the Sun began to shine upon the citizens of New York, there had been a great and decided change in the condition of the laboring classes, and the mechanics. Now every individual, from the rich aristocrat who lolls in his carriage to the humble laborer who wields a broom in the streets, reads the Sun."... Between 1828 and 1840 the number of daily newspapers doubled from 852 to 1,631 and total circulation increased from 68 million to 195 million. More daily newspapers were printed in the United States than in the rest of the world.
In Poland, a newspaper subscription tends to satisfy purely intellectual needs and is regarded as somewhat of a luxury which the majority of the people can heroically forego; in the United States a newspaper is regarded as a basic need of every person, indispensable as bread itself.