Full-stack development is an extensive word that umbrellas various stages of software development such as 'project management, front-end as well as back-end technologies, database management system, and quality assurance.
Front-end technologies are the outer covers through which you interact with, while the back-end is a server-side technology that (user can't see in the browser) handles the user authentication, database interactions, logics, server authentication to name a few.
Digging deep, let's distill down and understand the front-end and back-end technologies on the layers of the type of programming languages/frameworks involved in it.
1. Technologies Encapsulating The Front-end
The most commonly used front-end technologies are:
HTML is the foundation of any website development process. It's the building block that turns the text into images, tables, and links. The latest version of HTML is HTML5.
A scripting language used to enhance the look and feel of HTML pages by infusing rich and interactive effects. It is commonly found embedded in HTML code.
Visual Basic Script is a component-based scripting language developed by Microsoft. It enhances wen functionality with lightweight speed.
Other than this there are other front-end technologies like Ember JS and Material UI as well.
2. Technologies behind Back-End
As discussed in the opening paragraph, back-end or server-side technologies are responsible for how the site works updates and changes. The most hard-hitting back-end programming languages are:
Counted as the most popular language for web development, PHP's syntax is quite similar to C and Java. The classic and popular frameworks for PHP are Zend Framework and Symfony.
Probably, a simpler syntax than PHP, Python is designed to have a legible code and is well tested. The most popular framework for Python is Django.
Designed to be a fun language, Ruby is often called as a programmer's best friend. Twitter was built using Ruby. The most popular framework for Ruby is 'Ruby on Rails'.
Designed to be concise, many of Scala's design decisions are aimed to address criticisms of Java. Scala is object-oriented and runs on Java platform.
3. Database Management System
MySQL is the most popular DBMS for websites. The other names in the database field are SQL Server, Oracle or DB2.
4. Quality Assurance
Full-stack development also includes quality assurance and testing responsibilities. In this stage, engineers oversee the entire development process, from start to finish and check the security concerns, bugs throughout the program.